Airport

INTRODUCTION

  • A place from which aircraft operate that usually has paved runways and maintenance facilities and often serves as a terminal.
  • An airportis an aerodromewith extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport.
  • The term airport can include not only the civil airports familiar to the holiday maker but also airfields(which may have few or no associated buildings) and heliports.
  • The airports are divided into two categories

 

  1. public
  2. private

 

  • Public that is associated with any air travellers
  • Private(e.g :-air fright terminals, company airport, aeroclubs, and air-force bases
  • In warfare, airports can become the focus of intense fighting, for example the Battle of Tripoli Airport or the Battle for Donetsk Airport, both taking place in 2014.
  • Pilots got the direction according to the navigation
  • Navigation towers are also present at airports to provide pilots with direction when landing and taking off of runways
  • An airport with a helipad for rotor craft but no runway is called a heliport
  • An airport for use by seaplanes and amphibious aircraft is called a seaplane base.

Types of airport

  • International Airport

An international airport has additional facilities for customs and passport control as well as incorporating all of the aforementioned elements above.

  • Domestic Airport

 Domestic airport does not require any passport control facility it works with in a country from one state to another or with in the state.

location

The choice of location for an airport will depend upon the topography, geological and metro logical conditions as well as the Surrounding built up area. Sufficient land must be available for takeoff and landing runways and taxiways terminal building and maintenance area fuel storage etc and ideally for the future expansion. And another important factor is proximity to existing and potential transport network.

For all airport an expansion plan covering at least 20 years ahead should be drawn up, and revised at regular intervals in order to allow the change in volume and nature air traffic developments in aircraft technology and other innovations

Air traffic control presence

The majority of the world’s airports are non-towered, with no air traffic control presence. Busy airports have air traffic control (ATC) system. All airports use a traffic pattern to assure smooth traffic flow between departing and arriving aircraft. There are a number of aids available to pilots, though not all airports are equipped with them. Many airports have lighting that help guide planes using the runways and taxiways at night or in rain, snow, or fog. In the U.S. and Canada, the vast majority of airports, large and small, will either have some form of automated airport weather station, a human observer or a combination of the two. Air safety is an important concern in the operation of an airport, and airports often have their own safety services.

Different dimension of a plane

Signages

WAYFINDING SIGNS

Airport parking arrangement

These are parking arrangement on which aeroplanes are parked in airport

Inter-relationship between areas

Traffic pattern

The most common used traffic pattern is

Airport terminals

The following functional areas determine the airport capacity

  • take off and landing runway system(possible moments of aircraft per unit time)
  • Taxiways and number of arrival/departure gates;
  • Passenger terminal buildings(possible moment of passengers, baggage and air-fright per unit time)
  • The related road and rail systems (including parking , provision, capacity of roads )
  • Passengers /baggage check in clearance (no of counter and capacity of conveyor/transport system);
  • Passenger control ,security checks, checks prior to boarding the plane (size of waiting room and number of counters)

 

The apron is the area that connects runway to the terminals it includes taxiways, aircraft manoeuvring-parking areas, associated traffic areas and roads for service vehicles, as well as storage areas for the service vehicles and equipment, and should therefore be developed in conjunction with the terminals

How  passager get out from plan

Airport runway and aporn

  • The airport apron or apron is the area of an airport where aircraft are parked, unloaded or loaded, refueled, or boarded. Although the use of the apron is covered by regulations, such as lighting on vehicles, it is typically more accessible to users than the runway or taxiway.
  • The apron includes parking, maintenance and service areas At an airport,
  • The runway is the long strip of ground with a hard surface which an aeroplane takes off from or lands on.

There are runway markings and signs on most large runways. Larger runways have a distance remaining sign (black box with white numbers). This sign uses a single number to indicate the remaining distance of the runway in thousands of feet. For example, a 7 will indicate 7,000 ft (2,134 m) remaining. The runway threshold is marked by a line of green lights.

Pavement design

Factors affecting pavement design

There are so many factors which influencing the pavement design. The factors may be of loading, environment, materials used etc. Which are as follows.

  • Wheel load
  • Axle configuration
  • Contact pressure
  • Vehicle speed
  • Repetition of loads
  • Sub grade type
  • Temperature
  • Precipitation

SOURCE :- NEUFERT

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