Housing

INTODUCTION

  • A domestic architecture accommodates the group rather than the unit and its therefore public as well as private.
  • It is familiar through the widespread development of mass housing in the world in which individuals or families find living space either in m multiple dwellings or single limits produced in quality .
  • Housing is produced by many kinds of cultures by communal states to equalize living standards by tyrants to assure a docile labour force, and by feudal or caste system to brings together members of a class.

TYPES OF HOUSING

CLUSTER HOUSING

Subdivision techniques where known as zero –lot –line housing or high density housing dwelling are grouped together with common area left for recreation .

ROW HOUSING

One of a series of houses , often as similar or identical design, situated side by side and joined common walls.

TYPES OF APARTMENTS

Studio Apartment 

One room with a full bathroom and a kitchen. It may have an alcove for dressing or dining.

1 BHK Apartment

With 1 Bedroom, 1 Hall & 1 Kitchen.

2 BHK Apartment

With 2 Bedroom, 1 Hall & 1 Kitchen.
Sometimes it also classified as 1 Master Bedroom (Bigger than standard size) & 1 Small Bedroom, 1 hall & 1 kitchen.

3 BHK Apartment

With 3 Bedroom, 1 Hall & 1 Kitchen.

BHK Apartment

With 4 Bedroom, 1 Hall & 1 Kitchen.

COMMUNITY OPEN SPACES

  • The community open spaces shall be provided catering to the needs of area of layout, population for which the layout is planned and the category of dwelling units. The following minimum provision shall be made:
  • 15 percent of the area of the layout
  • 0.3 to 0.4 ha/1 000 persons; for low income housing, the open spaces shall be 0.3 ha/1 000 persons.
  • No  recreational  space  shall  generally  be  less than 450 m2.

MINIMUM AREAS

BUILDING CODE RULES

  • The width of the main street on which the building abuts shall not be less than 12 m and one end of this street shall join another street not less than 12 m in width.
  • The road shall not terminate in a dead end; except in the case of residential building, up to a height of 30 m.
  • open spaces on all its sides shall be not less than 6 m in width
  • A turning radius of minimum 9 m shall be provided for fire tender movement of fire tenders weighing up to 45 t.
  • The compulsory open spaces around the building shall not be used for parking.
  • The main entrance to the plot shall be of adequate width to allow easy access to the fire engine and in no case shall it measure less than 6 m.
  • The main entrance gate at the boundary wall is built over, the minimum clearance shall be 4.5 m.

VENTILATION SHAFT

  • The minimum size of the site for group housing multi- story apartment shall be 3000 m2.
  • The number of dwelling units are calculated on the basis of  the density  pattern  given  in  the Development  Plan  taking  into  consideration  a population of 4.5 persons per dwelling unit.

NATURAL LIGHTING

It should be possible to shade windows from bright light.

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING

Lighting should provide visual conditions consistent with the visual task, orientation and safety. Key factors are,

  •  level of illumination of horizontal and vertical surfaces;
  •  limitation of glare from a light source or reflections;
  • uniformity and luminance distribution;
  •  direction of lighting and shading; and
  • colour rendering.

The lighting in critical locations such as entrances, corridors, stairs, changes of level and workstations.

CORRIDOR REQUIREMENTS

  • A common lobby area with a dimension of 2 m in any direction outside a lift or main staircase (not applicable to a fire stair which is in addition to a lift or a main stair access)
  • Up to 4 m corridor length from common lobby =1.5 m width;

STAIRCASE

  • WIDTH 1 TO 2 M.
  • All buildings, which are 15 m in height or above, and all buildings used as educational, assembly, institutional, industrial, storage, and hazardous occupancies and mixed occupancies with any of the aforesaid occupancies, having area more than 500 m2 on each floor shall have a minimum of two staircases.
  • No external staircase, used as a fire escape, shall be inclined at an angle greater than 45° from the horizontal.
  • External stairs shall have straight flight not less than 1250 mm wide with 250 mm treads and risers not more than 190 mm. The number of risers shall be limited to 15 per flight.
  • Handrails shall be of a height not less than 1000 mm and not exceeding 1200 mm. There shall be provisions of balusters with maximum gap of 150 mm.

Internal stairs

Residential buildings (dwellings) l.0 m . The minimum width of tread without nosing  shall be 250 mm for internal staircase of residential buildings..The maximum height of riser shall be 190 mm for residential buildings and the number shall be limited to 15 per flight.

RAMP

The construction, in the form of an inclined plane that is steeper than or equal to 1:20(5 percent) from the horizontal, together with any intermediate landing, that makes it possible to pass from one level to another

PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

A person with any physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairment which in interaction with various barriers may hinder full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.

LIFT 

Provision for lifts shall be made for buildings 15 m or more in height.

Fire Lifts

fire lifts shall be provided with a minimum capacity for 8 passengers and fully  automated with emergency switch on ground level. In general, buildings 15 m in height or above shall be provided with fire lifts.

To enable fire services personnel to reach the upper floors with the minimum delay, one fire lift per 1200 m2 of floor area shall be provided and shall be available for the exclusive use of the firemen in a emergency.

The lift shall have a floor area of not less than 1.4 m2. It shall have loading capacity of not less than 545 kg (8 persons lift)

Fire fighting lift should be provided with a ceiling hatch for use in case of emergency, so that when the car gets stuck up, it shall be easily open able.

The number of lift  in one row for a lift bank shall not exceed 4 and the total number of lifts in the bank (of two rows) shall not exceed 8. A wall of 2 h fire rating shall separate individual shafts in a bank.

FOR DISABILITIES

Basements

The basement may vary between 33.33 to 50 percent of the plot area and is to be used for parking, servicing and for essential household storage without counting in FAR.

DRAINAGE SYSTEM

  • Water from drains shall be connected to village ponds and appropriate  eco-friendly methods  like growing of duck weed plants shall be adopted to treat waste water.
  • This treated water may be used for irrigation and agriculture.
  • Appropriate methods (namely conservation, ground water recharging, rain water harvesting, etc) should be employed  to  ensure  effective  water management.

FIRE SAFETY

Fire regulations may determine outcomes that seem to be less than ideal from a sustainability perspective. It may not be possible, for instance , to ensure that all bathrooms and wet areas can have both natural light and ventilation . Given the short occupancy periods of time.

SIZE OF CLUSTER

  • In ground and one storeyed structures not more than 20 houses should be grouped in a cluster.
  • Clusters with more dwelling units may create problems relating to identity, encroachment and maintenance.

Automatic sprinklers

Shall be installed in: basements used as car parks or storage occupancy, if the area exceeds 200 m2; multi-level basements, covered upper floors used as car parks, and for housing essential services ancillary to a particular occupancy or for storage occupancy, excluding any area to be used for sub-station, A.C. plant and DG set; any room or other compartment of a building exceeding 1 125 m2 in area except as in (g), if so advised by local authority; on all floors of the buildings other than residential and educational buildings, if the height of the building exceeds 15 m (45 m in case of group housing and apartments) .

Drums filled with water of 2000 liters capacity with two fire buckets on each floor.

PARKING

  • For car, the minimum  parking  space  to be 3 m × 6 m when individual parking space is required and 2.75 m × 5 m when common parking space is required.
  • Space for scooter/two wheeler and bicycle to be not less  than 1.25 m2  and 1.00 m2,respectively.
  • Area for each equivalent car space inclusive of circulation area is23 m2 for open parking, 28 m2 for  ground  floor  covered  parking and 32 m2 for basement.

Source :- Neufert 

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