Industry

INTRODUCTION

Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy. The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry

Types of industry on which industry work

  • Wood working
  • Metal working
  • Show rooms and vehicle repair
  • Vehicle repair shop
  • Vehicle repair workshops
  • Vehicle company workshops
  • Bakery shops

Wood working

Woodworking is the activity or skill of making items from wood, and includes cabinet making (Cabinetry and Furniture),wood carving, joinery, carpentry, and wood turning.

The art or technique of working wood
The work produced by a carpenter; woodwork

Space requirement

  • Space requirement (for an example) an average of 70-80m sq per employee (without any open store room)
  • In small companies   with    up  to  ten   employees,    general production   flow   can  be in a line  or L-shaped.  In          medium-sized companies   with    more   than   ten   employees,   a  U-shaped   or circular    (or  square)   arrangement     gives   a  better   flow.   In the latter   case  functions     are  combined:    gate,   load   and   unload, ramp,   supervision,    checking,  goods   in,  dispatch.

Workshop

Operating     design    (planning):     determine     all  factors    relevant to   the    operational      needs     of   the    business.       Machines: utilization,  costs      and      economic         feasibility,          power requirement,        load-bearing       capacity       of    floors,       space requirement,       costs.     Production      processes:     production times,    staffing    levels,   organization    of  technical     operations. Materials:     types,    quantities,      weights,     space    requirement, storeroom       dimensions.      Energy     supply:      heat,    electricity, compressed    air.  Waste   materials:    type,   space   requirement, waste    management.     Sequence     of   operations      and   tasks.

Plan  of  operational    utilization     of  space   (layout).

Tools  and  machines

CCS   cross-cut   saw

CS     circular   saw

ES     edging   circular   saw

CPS  panel  circular   saw BS     band  saw

PC    combination   planing   machine

PF     fine  planing   machine

S       shaping   machine

M  milling   machine

CM    chain  mortiser

SM    slot  mortising    machine

SF  frame  sanding   machine

RC    roller  conveyor

GS    glue-spreading  machine

WB    work  bench

FC     frame  clamp

Ch     chopper

BS     band  saw
CS    circular   saw
SIB    slot  boring   machine
PC    combination   surface  planing   machine
MM   mortising    machine
CM    chain  mortiser
SB     belt  sanding   machine
WB    work  bench
HF     combined  heating  furnace  for  oil and  c
OF    dust  filter

METAL WORKING

Floor of concrete   or, preferably,   wood-block   on concrete. Workshops    are   best   lit  from    above   and   adequate     lighting should    be  provided     at  each  workstation.     Individual     control of  machines    is necessary    (junction     box  in the  floor).

Tools  and machines

FM folding   machine

PO post drill machine;

OM dressing machine

OP dressing   plate;

HS hack-saw;

XS bow-saw;

SS sheet  shears;

ShS shaping   shears

CF crimping   and  flanging   machine;

Pr   press:

W welding   machines;

GW gas welding   machine

EW  electrical   welding   machine;

SW spot  welding   machine;

DB drawing   board;

WB work  bench

Welding and forging shop

Even  in medium-sized   work-shops, welding    and  forging   areas  should   be sealed  off  by steel  doors.

Good    ventilation      should    be  provided.     The   welding bench surface   should   be made  of firebricks.

For  cast  iron  and  metal welding,     charcoal    pits   are   required    for   pre-warming, with small forge above that

can also be used for soldering. Next to this,  water   and  oil  containers    for  quenching.

Windows in workshops

  • Workplace regulations (unrestricted    view),  low  sill  height
  • Ventilation (high-level   tilting   windows)
  • Sufficient daylight   into  the  middle   of the  shop  (high  windows)
  • Safety regulations    (safe  handling   of glass  sheets)
  • Sun can be shaded  out  on the  southern   side,  e.g. using  roof  overhang

SHOWROOMS  AND VEHICLE REPAIRS

Site    Ratio  of  built   area  to  unbuilt    area  is approx.    1:3.5

Function/organization Planning    based   on  two   versions    of the  ‘three-point    system’    —-7      ®

(1) works   office,   workshop,     parts   store

(2) service   office,   works   office,   parts   store

Offices   (depending   on  size  of company):

General   manager’s office    16-24  m-sq

secretarial     office    10-16  m-sq

sales   manager 16-20  m-sq

after-sales service manager:- 12-15  m-sq

stores manager :- 10-15m-sq

meeting room :-12-24m2,

Accounts:- 12-20m-sq

sales  personnel:- 9-12  m-sq

computer room :- 9-16m-sq

works  office :- 25-40   m-sq

Storage      space  :-   22-25   m-sq per workstation (in  general    repairs   and   body   shop).

Space   per workstation:    4 x 7 m (general repairs, bodyshop, paint   shop)

for  cars;  5 x  10m  for  light   commercial    vehicles.

Showroom:    potential     customers   must   be  able   to  walk around   the  vehicle   freely   and to open  the  doors.

Therefore, both   the   space   per   vehicle and   the    distance     between them    are   important.

To   be able  to see a vehicle properly the   viewer    ideally    needs   to be 5m  from   it.

Guideline:  for     new     cars, approximately     40-45  m2   display   area   per  car.  Compact display approximately

24 m2    per     car;     distance between    vehicles>  1.70 m.

Interdepartmental relationships (three-point   system)

VEHICLE REPAIR SHOPS

Single-span shed without  columns  is preferable.

Choose  an appropriate   module   to allow   extension.

Workshop    floors   should   be sealed   against   grease   and  oil.

Petrol   and  oil  traps   are  essential.

Provide   extractor    duact   for exhaust   fumes.

Provide   automatic    doors  with   hot-air  curtain.

Installation   of  ducts   for  electricity,    compressed   air, used   oil  and  water   is  recommended.

Basic  rules:   site  built   area  ‘/3 to  2/3 unbuilt    area.  Allow   for possible    extension.

For  larger   companies   the  average    area is 200 m2   per  workshop     employee.

Added   to  this  are  rooms for   sales,    works    office,    customers’     waiting      room,    social rooms   etc.

Check  mains   services.

For car  washes   high  water consumption     should    be taken   into  account.

Large   company     workshop      (3)-(7) for   lorries,    towing vehicles,    special   vehicles,    containers     and  trailers,    cars,  fork- lifts  and  electric    vehicles.

It is not  possible    to  use  a fixed   scheme   when   planning    and building     car-body    repair   shops,   as  local   conditions    usually vary  considerably.    Instead,   it is necessary  to  use  a planning method    which    is based   on  service   and  working     procedures and  which   takes   company-specific     features    and   needs   into account.

The  dimensions    of  the  workstations    should   therefore     be such   that    even   when    the   repair    shop    is  fully    occupied, mobile   work   benches   or the  required    tools   can  be moved   to the  vehicle.    Lay  service   ducts   overhead.

To   avoid     noise     and    dust     pollution       the    paint-     and body shops   should    be separate.  Due  to  the  different    sizes  of vehicles   to  be repaired    and  the  different    kinds  of  repair   work there   is  only   a limited    possibility    of  making    fixed   plans   for workstations    and  machine    positions.

VEHICLE COMPANY WORKSHOPS

In a company working with commercial vehicles the choice of position for the gates depends primarily on the shape of the site .from both the filters and customer point of view , the best design is one one where entry to and exit from the repair bays are through separate gates particularly for work on articulated vehicles.

Workshop bakery 

workshops 

height of working areas less then or equal 4 m width of circulation routes less then or equal 2 m. work space around cutter and mincer 3 m square each .

distance of machines from walls 40-50 cm cooling machines which work day and night must have good sound insulation.

Electrical repair shop 

PAINT SHOP

Wholesale butchers

This also allows a more complete draining of blood and it turn ensures.that the meat looks attractive and can be preserved for longer.

constructed on a grid of 15.50 x 15.50 m.

The slaughter area for large animals, which animals a winch, should be 1.50m higher.

The uniform grid is also used for the others parts of the building such as the butchers workshop (2 x 3 grid panels ) and the offices.

MEAT PROCESSING CENTRE 

Different types of rooms require temperatures: social room, offices WC 20°C; processing rooms, 18°C;air conditioned, 14-18°C; cool rooms 10-12°C; cold rooms, 0-8°C; deep -freeze rooms,-20°C.

high standard of structure and materials is essential and all health regulations should be satisfied.

Industrial building planning 

  1. siting

location factors :

raw materials

market

workforce

the order of priority of these factors when selecting a location depends on the individual company’s strategy in relation to cost of raw of raw materials, transport costs and labour costs.

Site 

suitable sites are those with railway lines running into site diagonally. otherwise the building can if necessary be positioned at an obligue angle.

schedule of accommodation

type of use

room sizes of square meter

room size of clear dimension

machine layout pan

energy gains supplies

escape routes

possible extension

Operational  planning  

careful operational planning is essential before on planning the building begins.

operational diagram

materials flow diagram

machine layout plan

workforce location plan

schedule of accommodation

list of building

Warehouse design 

warehouse are part of the production process and materials flow. store unit-transport unti production, unit dispatch elements as much as possible or avoid them entirely.

Articles stored : bulk good stored according to quantities involved

large quantities : silos, shed, bunkers, stockpiles.

small quantities: boxes, canisters, bins, dishes.

store and production on one level

store underneath production level

store and production depending on use, on two or more levels

Structure of high bay stores 

Steel structure 

Reinforced concrete structure 

High bay warehouses

High bay warehouses are changing modern  warehousing technique through the use of efficient stacking equipment or automatic computer -controlled system.

many manufacturers of stackers or fork lift supply tailor made system to improve storage capacity and speed of dispatch

Parking 

SOURCE:- NEUFERT

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