Include study of all components of resort and their relationships , activity space analysis. Literature study helps in absorbing the chapter of the space to be designed.
A building in which objects of historical, scientific, artistic, or cultural interest are stored and exhibited.
- The design of museums, art galleries and the temporary exhibition spaces associated with similar organizations involves the housing of a wide range of functions broadly indicated in the common definitions of a museum.
- Museums, however, vary considerably in size, organization and purpose
- It is important therefore to consider the particular context and features that characterize a museum in the process of developing concepts .
- Some museums may have only a small proportion of theermanent collections on public exhibition at any one time, the bulk remaining in storage and accessible for research and conservation purposes only.
- Well-serviced temporary exhibition space may be a priority in such cases.
- Other museums may have smaller collections attractive enough to the visiting public to warrant the development of sophisticated exhibitions with a designed life of several years.
- In such cases storage space may be needed primarily for the expansion of the collections, and considerable effort may be made to develop educational programmes.
Exhibition and collection storage spaces
- The layout of public areas in a museum, 2.4, may be based on a simple concept of free circulation around a single open-plan exhibition space, 2.4a,
- A linear arrangement of spaces with beginning, middle and end, 2.4b
- A loop where the essentially linear storyline leads naturally back to the beginning, 2.4c
- An arrangement of core and satellites where each theme or detailed treatment of a subject leads back to a central introductory or orientation area, 2.4a
- A more complex scheme combining linear, loop and core–satellite arrangement of spaces which is specifically structured to account for more or less stable relationships between collections and interpretive themes, 2.4d
- A labyrinthine arrangement where the relationships between areas can be varied from exhibition to exhibition by managing the public circulation, 2.4 e.
Exhibition design must concern itself with judgments about appropriate techniques of presentation, related to both the nature of the material and its position within the concept of display as a whole.
There is certain tendencies inhuman behavior which show is taken into account while designing a gallery. People enjoy surprises and excitements. People usually find long walks tiring and hence rest areas be provided. The rest areas are not necessarily sitting space could also include changes in the scale light and texture space. The circulation system can be broadly classified into two.
Shape of the gallery
- Traditional system is of dividing the space by means of permanent walls into rooms of various shapes and sizes which may either be communicating or remain independent.
- When the shape of the room is being decided it is important to know that a square room when exceeds 25’-0” square has no advantage over an oblong one.
The exhibits are arranged in a definite sequence and it is made sure by virtue of the geometry of the space everybody sees everything on display. Absolute control however can be very regiment and hence should not last for more than 100 yards. Since each display will be passed by every visitor hence adequate buffer should be provided so that the circulation doesn’t gets disturbed.
zoning of spaces
- Check room
- Food services
- Information desk
- Public toilets
- Museum lobby
- Retail(museum store)
- Freight elevator
- Collections loading dock
- Catering kitchen
- Electrical room
- Food services/kitchen
- Mechanical room
- Museum store office
- Conference rooms
- Security office
SUPER SECURE AREA
- Catering kitchen
- Collections store
- Computer network room
- Security equipment room
Here the visitors are offered a free choice to see the exhibits.
However it leads to a total confusion at times the circulation in a gallery should strike the right balance between formal control and flexibility in movement.
- Viewers should be able to move through the exhibit without being forced to walk past the objects they have already seen.
- There must be adequate space for visitors to move at different speeds.
- A viewer tends to turn to the right upon entering a gallery.
- The normal vision starts 27° up from eye level.
- For a standing viewer, well lit pictures or wall hangs should be hung 10m away with the top not more than 4.9m above eye level and the bottom about 70cm below.
- It is necessary to allow 3-5m² hanging surface per picture.
- 6-10m² ground surface per sculpture,
- A favorable viewing space should have a sill height of 2.13m for pictures and 3-3.65 m for sculptures.
FUNCTIONS FOR AN ENTRANCE HALL
- A cloakroom is required for the purpose of keeping visitors baggage for reasons of security.
- It can be seen in the entrance hall as in the national museum New Delhi .
- Space for sitting should be provided in the hall itself.
- The seating capacity will depend on the size of the museum and the number of anticipated visitors.
- The whole area should be able to work independently isolated from the main display areas/Galleries.
Enquiry and sale counter
- Enquiry or reception office should be located in the entrance hall for it has to provide the necessary information to the public.
- It can be a set of counters or a separate room depending on the requirements.
CIRCULATION AND PLANNING
- Exhibition spaces have certain prerequisites for better functioning.
- The galleries should be big and spacious to allow for partitioning and to allow a smooth flow of visitors during peak hours.
- Columns, big windows and other openings are not only a hindrance to a designer but also restrict space and pose security problems Layout – it is mainly of two types
- One of the challenges in the design of a museum is to keep the visitors interested in the exhibits.
- Visitors tend to lose their interests in the display no matter how interesting the exhibits might be after an average of two galleries.
- Therefore the modern concept in the museum design involves use of a number of ancillary areas around the circuit of the museum so that the visitors don’t lose their interest after a few galleries.
- These areas include lobbies cafeterias water bodies or landscaped areas. The best museum restaurants are civilized spaces and not left corners of the building.
THE ENTRANCE HALL
- The entrance hall is the key to the whole building.
- There should be only one public entrance for a museum and this entrance should be separate from the service areas.
- It is important for the entrance hall to be well designed and aesthetically appealing space for it is this space that one is going to be first and last to be in the entrance hall should provide an easy introduction to the building so that the visitors are able to easily orient themselves.
- Thus an entrance hall should be essentially a –
- Transition zone For visitors to adapt themselves in the museum and also a space for refreshing themselves from the gallery displays.
- Social gathering place The place should be an open space to serve as a gathering area for the visitors.
- Orientation space In large museums where there are large numbers of galleries the entrance hall also serves space for people to orient themselves.
- The size of the galleries will be determined by:
- The nature and dimensions of artifacts to be displayed.
- The lighting system in the galleries.
- Galleries for permanent exhibition should not be more than 22’ – 0” wide and 65’ – 0” to 80’ – 0” in length. The height should vary from 12’ – 0” to 18’ – 0”.
- The total space of the library should be divided into 5 basic categories – books, readers, staff, reading rooms, mechanical operations and other services.
- The reference library 10sq.m/1000 volumes is less space is needed for circulation.
- Carrels or cubicles are required for research scholars – open carrels 1.35 – 1.62 sq.m each, enclosed carrels 2 – 3.6 sq.m each An additional 50% space for circulation is also required.
- Spatial analysis of an auditorium – the auditorium in the museum is mainly used for hoisting activities like popular lectures, demonstrations, film shows, debates, quiz programs and meetings.
- The auditorium should be equipped with projection room facilities and should be suited for multipurpose activities like cultural programs.
- Access – public access to the auditorium needs to be located in the relation with the car parks easily seen and recognizable as the entrance by the public.
- Service accesses – should remain screened from the public access.
- Planning – The Main Functional Requirements Of An Auditorium Are Auditorium Stage, Public Spaces, Back Stage.
LAYOUT OF AN AUDITORIUM
Auditorium Stage Relationship
An angle of 130 deg is generally considered to be the limit beyond which it is not possible for an actor to convey facial expressions in two directions at the same time.
- The basic factors to be kept in mind while designing an auditorium are
- Area of the auditorium – 0.6 sq.m/person
- Furthest seat from the stage – 20-m
- Acting area – 9×9 m or 9m diameter
Used to be divided into separate compartments for rewinding and projection of the film with dimmer room, switch room, spotlight room, workshop and staff room each being 6 – 10 sq.m
One of the aids to good sight lines is an effective slope seats may be set on a rising parabolic curve or on two different incline.
A fairly mild slope for the lower half of the auditorium – 12” or 1 in 7 A steeper slope for the upper half of the auditorium – 24” or 1 in 3.5 All stepped sections are illuminated by hooded aisle lights.
- To decide the volumes of the auditorium, one must know the arrangements of aisles.
- The maximum number of seats between aisles is 14 and maximum between aisles and walls is 7.
- No seat in an auditorium should be more than 20m from the stage.
- The choice of the seating arrangement is affected by the width of the seats, the unobstructed space when the seats are tipped up and the design of the seat itself.
- The seating arrangement should be staggered in subsequent rows.
- Museum collections should, like, every other valuable or even irreplaceable-set of objects, be protected from loss or accidental destruction.
- There should be only one entrance and exit, which should be well guarded all the time. Near the entrance, there should be a counter in which visitors can keep or, rather should be required to keep their bags, portfolios or any such thing which can conceal art objects.
- The other point of danger in museum building is its windows. The ground floor windows should be opened in the day time and hidden behind curtains.
- The building should be flood lit in the night. Galleries should be so arranged so as to have more precious objects in the centrally situated galleries. Precious objects other than those on display should be kept in a strong room. Heavy stone sculptures should be displayed on the ground floor and other items on the upper floors, so that one can keep desirable watch on the same.
- If these are arranged as visual storages behind a protective glass front as those of the showcases, these could be made accessible to the curious visible. A provision of fire and burglar alarm is very essential for the storage.
- Prime function of a museum to collect objects and these objects cannot be exhibited at the same time. Because of collecting a number of specimens and showing only a small percentage (about 10 %) in the galleries, it leads to the problem of museum storage.
- The object which does not find a permanent place in the galleries must find a safe and sheltered space in the store.
- It is essential to see that storage place are properly lighted, well ventilated and adequately guarded, where the objects can be well preserved and safeguarded against deterioration, decay or damage.
- Storage should be easily accessible to the museum staff concerned and should utilize structurally well built, damp free areas of museum building which has adequate provisions for lighting, ventilation or air conditioning.
- For safety and preservation of the object first requirement is that the objects should be in the appointed places for inventory or study when needed.
- This also helps in checking up the objects for physical deterioration of the object.
- The storage should be arranged in such a way that any object can be easily seen and located without moving the objects in the front of or surrounding the particular object, so that delicate objects are not harmed.
- The equipment and furniture needed for the museum storage has to be specifically designed and executive as per the requirements of different categories of objects.
- Climatic conditions in the storage are the same as the climatic condition in the galleries because it is likely that the objects move many times a time from the storage of the galleries.
ACCESSIBLE EXHIBITION DESIGN
- Accessible design must be a part of this new philosophy of exhibition development because people with disabilities are a part of museums’ diverse audience. Discovering exciting, attractive ways to make exhibitions accessible will most directly serve people with disabilities and older adults. But to name an audience who will not benefit by these designs is impossible. Accessibility begins as a mandate to serve people who have been discriminated against for centuries; it prevails as a tool that serves diverse audiences for a lifetime.
- Items in exhibitions (e.g. artifacts, graphics, props) must be visually accessible to people.
- small items (to center line) at no higher than 1015 mm (40 in.) above the floor.
DIMENSIONS AND REACH RANGES FOR WHEELCHAIR USERS
SOURCE :- NEUFERT