A building well designed to accomplish the best use of a land is a skyscraper. Skyscrapers are the future metropolitan concrete jungles due to limitation of the land. The main use of sky scrapers these days is as a commercial tower, it provides a large vertically rising space for people to work together to give the best outcomes which they can produce. Skyscrapers as they rise also give the impression of greatness and fearlessness. So this is nothing but just the combination of knowledge of the finest engineering‘s and architect‘s present around the world today.
In the design the basic shape has been taken into consideration. The shape interprets the greatness and eye-catching skin of the skyscraper. But the main reason for that derived shape in the design is the wind that swirls around the building as it lifts up from the foundation level. After studying the effect of wind on the shape of the skyscraper the basic shape of the tower is being derived with diagrids being used as basic structure system.
Business centre is a Multi-functional Building- designed to have offices, hold conventions, individuals and groups gather to promote and share common interests. It is generally, designed for purpose of building headquarters, conducting meetings, or seminars.
General Features of Business Centre
- Seminar rooms
- Conference rooms
- Parking areas
major bussiness centre elements offices
The office planning depends on the following parameters which need to be incorporated in the design scheme:
- Open office planning – gives flexibility and dynamism to any given space. The open office today is a combination of yesterday‘s efficiency with ‘office landscaping ‘.
- Spaciousness – spaciousness within the building is created using atriums and spaciousness beyond is achieved through views to the landscape. A sense of spaciousness in different work places can also be created by half height glazed partitions systems to the aesthetic required.
- Lighting: spaciousness with atriums and landscape views provides the opportunity to bring in natural light which is very essential to create a working environment. Artificial lighting in an office environment using computer screens demands a new approach. Amenities and comfort: besides natural light and landscaped areas, the form and function of furniture and facilities to the firm professionals and executives seems to be a very relevant component for the comfort of the user; informal spaces like cafeteria etc.
Offices can be broadly classified into two categories:
- Speculative office
- Custom built office
It refers to the building of such an office space, which is rented out or leased to companies and individuals. Such office space is based on a framework of general yet flexible requirements. They are not designed to cater to a specific working style or procedure patronized by a company seeking office space. Since he tenants of such office space are continuously changing and parading, the specific design requirements cannot be met, considering the shorter cycles of lease times.
Examples: office spaces built by several construction companies and later offered to the public e.g. Unitech towers, Ansals plazas etc.
Custom built office
When an organization develops an office to occupy itself (rather than a speculative venture to be rented to other (organizations) it is called a custom designed building. As a half way situation a property company may develop a building as a speculative venture but bring allowing the tenants to gain some of the benefits of custom designed buildings. It can develop a building which can which can offer a range of space types relevant to the pattern of work at the design stage and in the future.
As certain which functions (if any) are to be accommodated within open-plan office space. Establish maximum numbers of staff to be accommodated within any one area, and determine, space standards for each function type, including allowances for local and main circulation.
Cellular office space
Establish which functions (managerial, professional, secretarial etc.) Are to be accommodated Within cellular office along with a broad understanding of their relationship requirements with Other areas.
Determine space standards using the information in the following fig, as a basis:
Consider what facilities for meetings are required and whether needs are best met by:
- Areas within open – plan spaces.
- Designated rooms.
- Lecture theatre – type formats.
- Or any combinations,
- Dimensions of special equipment.
The capacities and consequently areas required must be calculated. Typical space requirements for meting spaces:
The requirements for receptions and entrances should be determined keeping in mind:
- Whether usage will be primarily by staff, or staff and visitors.
- Likely traffic flows, including anticipated peaks.
- Position of reception desk in relation to entrance hall.
- Whether reception will be used as a waiting area.
- Security requirements.
- The degree to which the image presented will be an important factor.
- Other facilities/ items to be provided: windbreaks (vestibule lobby); building directory; seating; display; notice boards; publicity material; vending machines; telephones; coat storage.
High – technology offices frequently require associated activities to be located in close proximity to office space. For example:
- Research and development laboratories.
- Product maintenance workshops.
- Spares storage for call – up by service engineers based in the office.
- Product display facilities.
- Training facilities.
Requirements will vary according to individual circumstances and specific functional need investigated thoroughly, bearing in mind:
- Relationship to office functions.
- Access for materials, staff, visitors etc.
- Floor loadings.
- Impact on services (power supplies, cooling loads etc.).
non related functions
In certain cases entirely separate functions will need to be catered for. Examples would be city centre offices with ground floor shop or showroom units or community facilities incorporated within a development as a planning gain. The range of possibilities is too wide. It is important, however, to identify potential conflicts of interests between unrelated uses at an early stage to avoid problems later. In an it park we have:
- Doctor facility and etc
Establish the likely patterns of movement through the building, giving particular considerations to:
- The needs of disabled people.
- Vertical circulation via staircase, lifts, and / or escalators.
- Escape routes.
- The movement of staff and visitors at peak time.
- The movement of goods in or out if applicable.
The designation of any equipment should be located within their specified rooms. in particular:
- mainframe computers.
- communication systems including telephones, telex and facsimile machines.
- computer networking system controllers.
- word- processing facilities.
- photocopying and associated processes, including document shredders.
- security systems.
The no. Of lavatories should be determined:
- Nos – males and females – for whom the provision must be made.
- WCs – one for up to 15 persons; two for 16 – 35; three for 36- 65; four for 66 – 100.
- Urinals – nil up to six persons; one for 7 – 20; two for 21 – 45; three for 46 – 70; four for 71 –100.
- Wash basin – one for 1 – 15 persons; two for 16 – 30; for 31 – 50 four for 51 – 75; five for 76 –100.
- WCs – one for up to 12 persons; two for 13 – 25; three for 26 – 40; four for wash 41 – 57; five for 58 – 77; six for 78 – 100.
- Wash – basins – one for up to 12 persons; two for 13 – 25; three for 26 – 40; four for 41 –57; five for 58 – 77; six for 78 – 100.
- Distribution and location, for example within main circulation cores, adjacent to reception, adjacent to conference rooms and cafeteria.
- Special requirements for disabled people.
Requirements for store rooms should be determined:
- Items to be stored should be listed down: furniture, stationary, cleaning equipment and materials; packing materials; stock holding; any other hazardous item to be stored.
- Sizes and volume of material and equipment should be determined with the method of storage.
In high – technology offices it is essential that the development of the services design is concomitant with the development of the whole scheme. To this end, possible means of servicing the building should be investigated at an early stage to facilitate selection of an effective service Concept.
The things to look at:
- Requirements of all individual services (power, lighting, heating, cooling and data and communication cabling).
- Expansion needs for the future.
- Access requirements.
- Zoning and distribution.
Require variable levels to suit different situations including:
- Normal, glare – free illumination with good distribution on vertical services giving an average illuminance at desk level of 500 – 600 lux.
- Lower lighting levels in certain areas to allow illuminated consoles to be seen.
- Higher levels (800 lux) as a task lighting for servicing.
- Minimum levels for CCTV surveillance where applicable.
These were developed after consideration of some of the following factors:
- Status: in hierarchical organizations allocation of space will, broadly speaking, increase in line with position within the company.
- Requirement: arising from studies of functional needs.
- Protection of employee needs
Within an office we can have the following space relation diagram:
- Conference room
- Production control
- Director’s office/ boardroom
All forms of storage requirements have to be identified, including:
- Individual needs: filing, computer printout (burst and unburst),books, discs, pens, personal etc.
- Group storage: filing, stationary, books, floppy discs, cds, etc.
- Central storage: archives, stationary, spares etc. Thus, best form of provision for each type of storage required has to be employed:
- Filing systems
- High cupboards
- Screen or partition hung high-level cupboards
In past desks have often been purpose made and tailored to incorporate all the equipment. It is now recognized that this approach does not provide sufficient flexibility for the frequent changes required when spaces and arrangements are altered, or when items are replaced. Usually desks are
- Proprietary systems
- Purpose made, adopting a loose – fit approach to the incorporation of equipment.
- Modified standard office furniture ranges.
Facilities to be incorporated might include:
- VDUs up to 6 (though usually 2 or 3) per workstation, depending on the market, often of
- Different shapes and sizes (sometimes additional shared screens will also be a requirement,
- Either to serve a desk or an area of the room).
- Dealer board: telephone switches board with up to 50 outside lines and 20 direct lines.
- Telephone handsets: one or two.
- Personal computer and keyboard.
- Calculator and task light.
Requirements in individual circumstances will depend on:
- No. Of staff likely to take meals.
- Individual preferences (whether staff prefer a break away from the office, or prefer to bring a prepared lunch etc.).
- Size of organization and no. Of visitors.
- Locally available alternatives (sandwich bars, cafes, restaurants etc. In a suitable price range).
- Management attitudes to providing facilities and to subsidies.
- Other reasons (e.g. Where clients are entertained frequently, conferences organized, or where unusual hours are worked)
Factors affecting planning considerations
- Most important is the relation of the conference core to the other major elements such as accommodation, food and beverage and recreation.
- Circulation routes of the employees, customers and the guests.
- Service connection between the conference core and the kitchen, audio-visual support, furniture storage, house keeping and so on.
- Proper segregation of circulation routes for press, delegates, public and VIP’s.
large conference room
- Rooms greater than 1500 sq. Ft .Or 139.5 sq. M. Are most often used for presentation requiring little audience involvement through discussion and questions.
- Seating are set up in straight rows facing the speaker.
- Since the room depth exceeds 50 ft. Or 15.2 m. And the number of rows at least 10, may be necessary to provide a stage or riser.
medium conference room
- Rooms of size between 1000-1500 sq. Ft. (93-139 sq. M.)
- These mid size rooms needs to allow practically any type of room arrangements like theatre, class rooms, hollow-square, u-shaped or small group configurations.
small conference room
- Rooms are in the range of 500-1000 sq. Ft. (45-93 sq. M.).
- Smaller rooms may offer less flexibility and may also encourage crowding of slightly larger groups
Fire fighting implies the ability of building element to fulfil their assigned functions under condition if maximum severity of exposure to heat expected to occur in the building.
The fire fighting system must be located at appropriate location and limited to the area in order to
Minimize damage to the plants and building structure.
- Fire controlling devices
- Smoke detectors
- Automatic alarm system
- Heat detectors
- Manual system
- Detection system and alarms
- Heat sensitive detection system
- It consists of automatic sprinkler, alarm.
Points to be considered for fire fighting in multi storey building:
- Structures to be built for 2 hours rating
- Smoke detectors to be diligently used.
- Refuse areas, fire escape routes, staircase and lift to be suitably places and should be enough in number.
- Independent emergency lighting and communication systems.
- Public address system should be checked periodically,
- Adequate maintenance of building services such as mechanical and electrical equipment.
- Design of exits:
- Capacity of door of 70cm can take 60 persons per minute.
- Stairway of 90cm width can take 45 persons per minute fire rating of materials should be considered.
- Periodic checking of fire alarms.
- Signage’s for exits.
- Practice of fire escape drill by users.
- Adequate space around the building for installation and approach of fir fighting help from all sides.
- Fire lifts should be 1 or 2 exclusively for the use of fireman with a travel speed of 1minute from top to bottom.
- Lighting protection should be installed as per the building bye laws.
- Refuse areas should be provided almost after every 6th or 7th floor.
- Automatic extinguishing systems must be provided with wet riser comprising of pumps, tanks and valves as per ISI codes.
Building plans for buildings which are more than 15 m height and for special buildings like assembly, institutional, the following additional information shall be furnished/indicate in the building
- Main entrances to the premises shall be of adequate width to allow easy access to the fire engine and in no case it shall measure less than 5 meters.
- Educational buildings above two storey’s having an area of more. Than 1000 m*/floor shall have manually operated electrical fire alarm.
- No exit doorway shall be less than 100cm in width. Doorways shall be not less than 200cm in height
- Fire escapes stairs shall have straight flight not less than 75cm wide with 25 cm treads and risers
Not more than 19 cm. The number of risers shall be limited to 16 per flight.
- Handrails shall be of a height not less than 90cm.
- Every 30m distance one fire escape staircase is provided.
- The minimum width of a corridor in institutional buildings shall be 1.5m
- Building is above 15m in height nor exceeding 24m in height provide a one wet riser cum down comer per 1000m2 floor area. The riser shall be fully charged with adequate pressure at all the times and shall be adequate in operation.
- Fire hydrants shall be provided at the horizontal distance of 300’ or less than and 10’ away from the street.
- Automatic sprinkler system provide in the horizontal pattern of pipe placed under the ceiling having the sprinkler heads shall be constructed that they will open at 135 to 160 automatically.
- Min. Space for sprinkles is 15’.
2.10.1 Escape routes:
The number of exits and escape routes required depends also on the maximum number of people in the areas under consideration. Below are typical requirement:
500 people 2 exits
1000 people 3
2000 people 4
4000 people 5
7000 people 6
11000 people 7
16000 people 8
16000+ 8 plus1 per extra 500 people
Parking spaces may be parallel, perpendicular, or angled to the driving lane or aisle.
Every basement shall be in every part at least 2.4m in height from the floor to the underside of the roof slab or ceiling. The access shall be separate from the main and alternative staircase providing access and exit from higher floors.
source :- neufert